Posts tagged: Arthur B. Pardee

Processing the Arthur B. Pardee Papers As Part of the Maximizing Microbiology Project

By , December 4, 2015

In 1954, Arthur B. Pardee published a paper describing the discovery of messenger RNA (mRNA), soon after publishing the first report of ribosomes in bacteria in 1952, forever changing the study of microbiology. The Center for the History of Medicine is pleased to report that the Arthur B. Pardee papers (1949-2001), a product of Pardee’s professional activities, research, and career as a professor at Harvard Medical School and researcher at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, are currently being processed as part of the Maximizing Microbiology: Molecular Genetics, Cancer, and Virology, 1936-2000 project.

Arthur B. Pardee (1921-) graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1942, before receiving his Masters of Science in 1943 and then doctorate from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, in 1947. Pardee spent several years teaching and working in the influential Virus Lab at the University of California, Berkeley, where much of his early research focused on the mechanism of feedback inhibition at the biochemical level. While working at the Virus Lab, Pardee made the discovery of mRNA as well as the presence of ribosomes in bacteria. In 1959, Pardee took a sabbatical and worked with Francois Jacob (1920-2013) and Jacques Monod (1910-1976) at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, where they carried out the “PaJaMo” experiment, which demonstrated that gene expression is regulated by a repressor mechanism.

Pardee went on to become a Professor of Biochemical Sciences at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, where he  identified the restriction point in the cell cycle, or “Pardee point,” which is a point in a cell cycle in the G1 Phase where the cell commits to moving to the S Phase. He published this finding in 1974, defining the discovery as that of a restriction point for control of normal animal cell proliferation.

In 1975, Pardee accepted the positions of Professor of Biological Chemistry, Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, and Chief, Division of Cell Growth and Regulation, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. In the 1980s, Pardee continued his work relating to cancer, identifying certain agents that can uncouple mitosis from the completion of DNA replication, which is lethal to cells. This finding led directly to the emergence of the idea that the cell-cycle is controlled by “checkpoint” proteins, which ensure temporal control of cell-cycle biochemical events. He thus introduced the idea that cancer cell frequently harbor defects in checkpoint proteins, and that checkpoint-abrogating agents might be used to selectively kill cancer cells. In the 1990s, along with Peng Liang, Pardee invented the concept of differential display, which is a method to detect messenger RNAs expressed in a given cell type, which can be used to isolate specific genes. This has since been used to detect genes whose expression has been altered by cancer or other diseases, and was one of the first methods used to detect cancer in its early stages. For his many accomplishments, Pardee has received countless awards and honors, and has been an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1963 and member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1968. He retired from teaching in 1992, and remains a Professor Emeritus at the Harvard Medical School. He continues to work as the Chief of the Division of Cell Growth and Regulation at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, actively publishing articles.

The papers, created throughout Pardee’s professional, research, and publishing activities, include raw research data, presentation materials, writings, and other materials relating to his professional activities. They are expected to be opened to research by the end of 2015.

The Maximizing Microbiology: Molecular Genetics, Cancer, and Virology, 1936-2000 project is funded by a Hidden Collections grant from the Harvard University Libraries. In addition to the Arthur B. Pardee papers, the project will also open the collections of other scientists and professors whose work relates to the origins of molecular genetics: the Francesc Duran i Reynals papers, 1936-1959 and the Luigi Gorini papers, 1947-1980s. Already, the Bernard D. Davis papers, 1909-1995 (inclusive), 1939-1994 (bulk), have been opened as part of the project. For more information on the Maximizing Microbiology project, please contact Emily Novak Gustainis, Head, Collections Services or Elizabeth Coup, Processing Assistant.

Bernard D. Davis Papers Processing Has Begun, as part of Maximizing Microbiology Project

By , July 17, 2015
Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, c1991.

Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, c1991.

In 1953, Bernard D. Davis conducted work on biochemically deficient mutants at a laboratory at the Department of Preventive Medicine at Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, that revolutionized microbiology. The Center for the History of Medicine is pleased to report that the Bernard D. Davis papers (1960-1993), a product of Davis’s professional activities, research, and long career as a teacher at Harvard Medical School, are currently being processed as part of the Maximizing Microbiology: Molecular Genetics, Cancer, and Virology, 1936-2000 project.

Davis (1916–1994) graduated from Harvard College in 1938 and Harvard Medical School in 1940. After time working in laboratories as a research fellow and intern at Johns Hopkins Hospital, and as a commissioned officer of the United States Public Health Service, Davis became Chair of the Department of Pharmacology at New York University. He then served as the Chair of the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology and as Professor in the Bacterial Physiology Unit at Harvard Medical School. Following his retirement from Harvard, he served as a visiting professor at Tel Aviv University, the University of California, Berkeley, and Taiwan University, before being appointed as a Fogarty Scholar at the National Institutes of Health. He was nominated to the National Academy of Sciences in 1967, an organization for which he served as the President of the Nominating Committee. In 1989, he received the Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology.

Davis produced important research which led to advances in microbial physiology and metabolism. He co-authored multiple editions of the central textbook of this area of study, Microbiology, first published in 1967. Later in life, he wrote more philosophical texts regarding the impact science has on human life and interactions, including the book Storm Over Biology: Essays on Science, Sentiment, and Public Policy (1986)  and was in the midst of writing a text defending a fellow scientist after false misconduct charges at the time of his death in 1994. The papers, created throughout Davis’s professional, research, and publishing activities, include professional appointments and teaching records, writings and publications, public speaking records, professional association membership and committee records, research records, and collected publications. They are expected to be opened to research by the end of 2015.

The Maximizing Microbiology: Molecular Genetics, Cancer, and Virology, 1936-2000 project is funded by a Hidden Collections grant from the Harvard University Libraries. In addition to the Bernard D. Davis papers, the project will also open the collections of other scientists and professors whose work relates to the origins of molecular genetics: the Luigi Gorini papers, 1947-1980s; the Papers of Arthur B. Pardee, 1950-2000; and the Papers of Francesc Duran i Reynals, 1936-1959 (bulk). For more information on the project, please contact Emily Novak Gustainis, Head, Collections Services or Elizabeth Coup, Processing Assistant.

Selected New Acquisitions

By , April 16, 2012

Over the past six months, acquisitions staff has been busy. In addition to collections already profiled here in CHoM News, the Center has acquired these important collections:

• Jonathan R. Beckwith papers, 1969-2009. Jonathan R. Beckwith is American Cancer Society Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School. Beckwith and his laboratory have worked in the areas of gene expression, the mechanism of protein secretion, the structure and function of membrane proteins, and the disulfide bond formation in proteins and cell division. In 1969, Beckwith led the research group that isolated the first gene from a bacterial chromosome. Beckwith has also been active in public discussions of issues related to the social impact of genetics. From 1989 to 1995, he was a member of the Working Group on Ethical, Legal and Social Implications of the Human Genome Project for the National Center for Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, and from 1990 to 1993, he was president of the board of directors at Science for the People, an organization focused on the misuse of science.

• Melvin W. First papers, 1950-2010. Melvin W. First (1914-2011) was Professor of Environmental Health Engineering in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at the Harvard University School of Public Health from 1971 to 1984, Associate Professor of Applied Industrial Hygiene at the same institution from 1963 to 1971, and Toxicologist and Industrial Hygiene Engineer with both the Detroit Department of Health and the Michigan Department of Health in Lansing between 1936 and 1941.

• Melvin J. Glimcher papers, 1960-2009. Melvin J. Glimcher is the Director of the Laboratory for Skeletal Disorders and Rehabilitation, Children’s Hospital, Boston and is the Harriet M. Peabody Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School. Glimcher’s main area of research is within the general field of biologically mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth.

• Martin S. Hirsch papers, 1967-2010. Martin S. Hirsch is a Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Boston, a Professor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases at the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, and a physician at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (1971-). Hirsch serves on the Executive Committee for Harvard Medical School’s Division of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Infectious Diseases. His main areas of research include pathogenesis and therapy of human infections with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).

• Malkah T. Notman papers, 1970-2005. Malkah Tolpin Notman is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (1988-), a Psychiatrist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (formerly Beth Israel Hospital), Boston (1973-), and faculty of the Boston Psychoanalytic Institute (1973-). Notman’s research interests focus on adult development, including the development and psychological functioning of women, in particular reproductive-psychological issues and the psychological aspects of new reproductive technologies.

• Arthur B. Pardee papers ,1950-2000. Arthur B. Pardee is known for his groundbreaking theoretical and technical contributions to the fields of molecular biology and cancer research, particularly developments related to the understanding and manipulation of cell growth and reproduction. He is perhaps most famous for his involvement in the “PaJaMo” experiment of the late 1950s.

• Anne B. Young, papers 1974-2007. Anne B. Young is Julieanne Dorn Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and Chief of the Neurology Service at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Young was the first female chief of service at MGH and the second woman to be elected president of the American Neurological Association. Young has specialized in the study and treatment of neurological disorders, particularly basal ganglia disorders.

• Warren M. Zapol, papers, 1969-2004. Warren M. Zapol has been the Reginald Jenney Professor of Anaesthesia at Harvard Medical School since 1991 and Anesthetist-in-Chief at Massachusetts General Hospital since 1994. His research has focused on the mechanisms and treatment of acute respiratory failure as well as and the diving reflex in both humans and the Weddell seal.

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