John E. Hoopes papers are open for Research

By , January 29, 2018

The Center for the History of Medicine is pleased to announce that the John E. Hoopes papers, 1940-2012. Hoopes, (1931-) was a plastic surgeon specializing in reconstructive, rehabilitative, and cosmetic plastic surgery, and was part of the founding staff of the Gender Identity Clinic at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland.

John E. Hoopes was born in 1931, and attended Rice University, Houston, Texas, for his undergraduate education from 1949 to 1953. He then received his M.D. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, in 1957. Hoopes then became an Assistant Professor of Plastic Surgery at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and was the founding Chairman of the Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the first academic institution in the United States to perform sex reassignment surgeries, from 1965 to 1968. From 1968 to 1970, he was the Chairman of the Plastic Surgery Division at the Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. He returned to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1970, and served as the Chairman of Plastic Surgery until his retirement in 1990. He founded the John E. Hoopes Foundation for Plastic Surgery, and remains a consultant on topics of plastic surgery.

Hoopes’s research throughout his career focused on different subjects within the larger field of plastic surgery. He published numerous scientific journal articles on the topics of his scientific study, including but not limited to degenerative diseases of the hand and surgical management; surgical rehabilitation after radial maxillectomy and orbital extension; immediate forehead flap in resection for oropharyngeal cancer; organic synthetics for augmentation mammoplasty and their relation to breast cancer; the “insatiable” cosmetic surgery patients; the psychiatric-surgical approach to adolescent disturbance in self-image; issues of cleft palate reconstruction and speech; psychiatric aspects of transsexual surgery management; sex reassignment or reconstruction surgeries; reduction mammoplasty; skin wounds and scars and the relation of enzymes and metabolism to their healing; facial fractures and reconstruction; and drug injection injuries, among others.

John E. Hoopes was involved with numerous professional organizations throughout his career. He was the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Fellow in 1970. From 1982 to 1983, Hoopes was the Chair of the American Board of Plastic Surgery, and from 1989-1990, the President of the American Association of Plastic Surgeons. He was also involved with organizations such as the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, and the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons.

The papers are a product of Hoopes’s career as a plastic surgeon, researcher, professor, and administrator. The papers contain: professional organizations records; research records; Johns Hopkins University and other professional records, which include both administrative records as well as a small group of Gender Identity Clinic records.

View the online finding aid to the John E. Hoopes papers, 1940-2012.

For information regarding access to this collection, please contact the  Public Services staff.

Hermann Lisco papers are open for research

By , December 18, 2017

The Center for the History of Medicine is pleased to announce the opening of the Hermann Lisco Papers, 1899-2000 (inclusive), 1940-1974 (bulk) to research. Joseph Giese, a Center intern who completed his studies at the Simmons College School of Library and Information Sciences in December, processed this collection and wrote this post with the supervision of Betts Coup.

Herman Lisco (1910-2000), M.D., 1936, University of Berlin, was a German-born pathologist who first worked as an assistant at the University of Berlin at the Charite-Krankenhaus briefly the year he graduated, before departing Germany due to its political climate for the United State – he was married to a Jewish woman. After immigrating, he began working as an assistant and instructor at Johns Hopkins University Medical School and Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, where he remained for four years.  In 1940, he moved to Boston, Massachusetts, to work at Harvard Medical School, and served as an instructor of pathology there for another four years. At that time, he was recruited by the Biology and Health Division of the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan District of the U.S. Army, also known as the Manhattan Project, where he became the first doctor to perform an autopsy on an individual who had died of acute radiation poisoning.  In 1947, he went to work for the Argonne National Laboratory until 1957.  In 1967, he returned to work at Harvard Medical School as a professor, and worked as an Associate Dean (1969), Associate Professor of Anatomy (1970-1977), Deputy Chairman of Medical Sciences (1977-1982). He formally retired in 1981 as an Associate Professor of Anatomy.

Lisco’s research focused on the carcinogenic effects of plutonium and the radiotoxicity of other elements and chemicals on humans and lab animals, as well as radiation’s effects on the formation of tumors and lymphoma.  He wrote often on the “acute radiation syndrome” provoked in organisms by excessive exposure to radiation, and much of his research focused on cancer, and the side effects of radiation therapy on patients being treated for cancer.  He conducted a number of trips to Europe that dealt with studying the incidence of leukemia in women treated with radiotherapy for cervical cancer.  Much of his work was devoted to the study of the pathological effects of atomic radiation, and the importance of radiological protection and importance of medical supervision in radiation work.

The collection reflects Lisco’s professional, research, and publishing activities, but also his personal activities and interests.  Contained within are research records, selected reprints, notes, medical images, speeches, and programs from meetings of organizations of which he was There is also correspondence of a more personal nature, including letters concerning conscientious objector status, letters to specialist physicians and former students who were not particularly connected to research Lisco was undertaking, newspaper updates on the political situation in Germany 1989-1990, information about his inner life, photographs of Lisco himself and a number of people with whom he had interacted over the course of his career, and scrapbooks with grade reports from his life in Germany between the years of 1918 to 1936, dating back to as early as when he was eight years old.

The finding aid can be found at: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HMS.Count:med00399.

For information regarding access to this collection, please contact the  Public Services staff.

Jeffries Wyman papers are open for research

By , December 18, 2017

The Center for the History of Medicine is pleased to announce that the Jeffries Wyman, 1814-1874, papers are open for research. Jeffries Wyman was the Hersey Professor of Anatomy at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, from 1847 to 1874, as well as the first curator of what came to be known as the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology (1866-1874), also in Cambridge. He was the President of the Boston Society of Natural History (1856-1870), and a councilor of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Though a graduate with a medical doctorate from Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, following graduation Wyman chose to focus on naturalist research, including but not limited to studies of human and comparative anatomy, physiological observations, as well as paleontological and ethnological examinations of fossils, and observations of animal habits. The papers include records relating to his work as a researcher, professor, and author, as well as related professional activities.

Wyman was born in Chelmsford, Massachusetts on 1814 August 11 to Ann Morrill Wyman and Dr. Rufus Wyman (1778-1842), the first physician at the McClean Asylum for the Insane and professional partner of Dr. John Jeffries, after whom his son was named. He attended Philllips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, and entered Harvard College in 1829, graduating at age nineteen in 1833. Wyman went on to attend Harvard Medical School, acting as house pupil at Massachusetts General Hospital during his four years of study. He graduated with his medical doctorate in 1837. He became a Demonstrator for John C. Warren at Harvard Medical School (1838), and began to shift the focus of his career away from medicine towards anatomy. Wyman then became the Curator at the Lowell Institute, Boston, in 1839, where he delivered a series of public lectures, and remained an affiliate until 1842. Over the next several years, Wyman traveled to Europe to study with doctors, anatomists, scientists, and naturalists such as Richard Owen (1804-1892), P. (Pierre) Flourens (1794-1867), Francois Magendi (1783-1855), H.-M. Ducrotay de (Henri-Marie Ducrotay) Blainville (1777-1850), Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1805-1861), and H. (Henri) Milne-Edwards (1800-1885). Wyman then returned to the Boston area, and on 1847 April 03 was appointed the first Hersey Professor of Anatomy at Harvard University, as this position was moved from Harvard Medical School in Boston to Harvard University in Cambridge following the resignation of John C. Warren. He returned to the Lowell Institute for a series of twelve lectures on Comparative Physiology in 1849. Wyman was involved with the formation of the Museum of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology, and in 1866, when George Peabody (1795-1869) founded what became known as the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology in 1866, Wyman became its first curator.

Wyman is known for his work on topics that span human and comparative anatomy, physiological observations, paleontological and ethnological studies of fossils, observation of animal behaviors and habits, and the study of cells, muscular, and bone structures of various animals. He wrote papers on large apes and was responsible for naming the gorilla, and studied the eye and hearing organs of fish in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. He examined the passage of nerves throughout the body and carried out various experiments relating to the impact of heated or boiling water on organic matter and living organisms. Wyman furthermore studied the development of mold, the impact of light on tadpole development, and created methods for measuring the velocity and force of ciliary movements. He went to the Dutch colonized islands in the Guianas to study various species of fish, and traveled down the east coast of the United States and into Florida examining the natural landscape and its flora and fauna. Additionally, he was involved with the trial of Dr. John White Webster for the murder of Dr. George Parkman; for which he studied bone fragments and assisted with the identification of the body of the deceased. He also studied the brain and skull of Daniel Webster, examining the arrangement of the spiculae of bone in the neck of the femur and making observations on the cranial structure.

Wyman married Adeline Wheelright in 1850, and they had two daughters, Mary (1855-) and Susan (1851-1907). Wheelright died in 1855. Wyman then married Anne Williams Whitney in 1861, with whom he had one son, Jeffries Wyman, Jr. (1864-1941). Whitney died in 1864. Wyman, who had suffered from pneumonia during his undergraduate study at Harvard College, dealt with pulmonary infections throughout his life. He died from a related illness on 1874 September 04 in Bethlehem, New Hampshire. His grandson, Jeffries Wyman III (1901-1995) was a molecular biologist and biophysicist, and was also a professor at Harvard Medical School and later the University of Rome.

The papers are the product of Wyman’s professional activities during his career as a naturalist and anatomist, carrying out scientific research during travels and research in residence at Harvard University and the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, and teaching at Harvard University and the Lowell Institute. The papers include numerous diaries, sketches, and anatomical drawings recording his observations, and correspondence with peers and colleagues including Charles Darwin on topics of anatomy and evolution, as well as correspondence with family members and friends. T

The finding aid for the Wyman papers can be found: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HMS.Count:med00424.

For information regarding access to this collection, please contact the  Public Services staff.

 

Zerka T. Moreno papers are open for research

By , December 6, 2017

The Center for the History of Medicine is pleased to announce the opening of the Zerka T. Moreno Papers to research.

View the finding aid:  Zerka T. Moreno papers, 1930-2010 (inclusive), 1957-2000 (bulk)

0004864_ref Born in Amsterdam, Netherlands, on 1917 June 13, Zerka T. (Toeman) Moreno attended secondary school in the Netherlands before relocating to London, England, in 1932, where she attended technical school. At that time, she planned to become an artist or fashion designer, with a special interest in designing for the stage. Moreno moved to the United States in 1939, shortly after the beginning of World War II, and in 1941, arranged for her sister to move to Beacon, New York, for treatment at the Beacon Hill Sanatorium with J. L. (Jacob Levy) Moreno (1889-1974). That same year, Zerka T. Moreno became interested in J.L. Moreno’s study of psychodrama and group psychotherapy, and began studying under him, acting as his private secretary to earn her scholarship. When J.L. Moreno opened the Sociometric Institute in New York City, she became his research assistant and moved to work at the Institute (which was later renamed the Moreno Institute, and eventually relocated back to Beacon). Zerka T. Moreno continued to develop as a leader of group psychotherapy workshops and instructor, and worked directly alongside J.L. Moreno throughout the latter decades of his life.

In 1947, the two founded the journal Sociatry, which later became known as Group Psychotherapy, which published research regarding the social sciences of sociatry, psychodrama, and sociometry. During the 1950s, both Zerka and J.L. Moreno served as adjunct professors at New York University, teaching courses about psychodrama. She was the cofounder of the International Association for Group Psychotherapy and the American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama, and spent much of her career traveling for psychotherapy and psychodrama workshops. After J.L. Moreno’s death in 1974, Zerka T. Moreno continued to work as a psychotherapist. With Merlyn S. Pitzele (1911-1995), she continued to attend to patients and offer teaching sessions in Beacon and New York City as well as countless American and international locations. In 1996, she moved to Charlottesville, Virginia, and in 2013, after breaking a hip, moved into a nursing home in 2013 in Rockville, Maryland. She continued to see patients from her bed at the nursing home until shortly before her death.

The collection reflects Moreno’s efforts to lead group psychotherapy sessions and provide instruction in the field of psychodrama. Records include workshop and training records, collected writings and publications, professional activities records, correspondence, personal papers, as well as records pertaining to the management of the Moreno Institute.

For information regarding access to this collection, please contact Public Services.

The Paul Charles Zamecnik papers are open for research

By , October 31, 2017

0004657_drefThe Center for the History of Medicine is pleased to announce the opening of the Paul Charles Zamecnik papers, 1910-2011 (inclusive), 1931-2009 (bulk). Zamecnik (1912-2009) was a microbiologist and molecular biologist whose research spanned eight decades. Zamecnik is known for his work on protein synthesis and the discovery of transfer RNA, accomplished with colleagues Mahlon Hoagland (1921-2009) and Mary Louise Stephenson (1921-2009). Later in his career, he discovered antisense oligonucleotides and explored their therapeutic potential, and was the first to publish evidence for the existence of microRNA.

A graduate of Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (1933) and the Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (1936), Zamecnik interned at the Collis P. Huntington Memorial Hospital and then at Cleveland, Ohio’s University Hospitals. Zamecnik was a fellow at the Carlsberg Laboratories, Copenhagen, Denmark, but returned to the work at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, New York, after the 1940 Nazi invasion of Denmark. He held a teaching position at Harvard Medical School during the war, and was then given his own laboratory at Massachusetts General Hospital focusing on the mechanisms of protein synthesis. In 1956, Zamecnik became the Collis P. Huntington Professor of Oncologic Medicine at Harvard Medical School, and continued his research at Massachusetts General Hospital until his retirement as Professor Emeritus in 1979. At that time, he moved his research laboratory to the Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Research, where he remained until 1997 when that foundation was absorbed by the University of Massachusetts. Zamecnik returned to Massachusetts General Hospital’s Cancer Center as a Senior Scientist, where he continued to work until weeks prior to his death in 2009. In 1990, he cofounded Hybridon, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, whose work focused on the development of antisense drugs; this company merged with Idera Pharmaceuticals in 2004. In 2009, Zamecnik cofounded Zata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Worcester, Massachusetts, with David Tabatadze; this company continues to explore the therapeutic possibilities of antisense oligonucleotides.

 

Data from Zamecnik's research that led to the discovery of transfer RNA

Data from Zamecnik’s research that led to the discovery of transfer RNA

The papers are the product of Zamecnik’s activities as a microbiologist and molecular biologist, researcher, author, professor, and administrator. The papers contain: Zamecnik’s research records, including those relating to transfer RNA and antisense oligonucleotides; professional correspondence, writings and publications records; records from talks, symposia, presentations, and conferences Zamecnik attended; Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital records; and photographs and slides relating to his research, teachings and presentations, and travel.

The finding aid for the Zamecnik papers can be found: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HMS.Count:med00256 .

For information regarding access to this collection, please contact the  Public Services staff.

Processing of the Zerka T. Moreno Papers

By , July 12, 2017

Zerka T. Moreno (Zerka Toeman) (1917-2016) was a psychotherapist specializing in psychodrama and an adjunct professor at New York University, New York City, New York in the 1950s. Working with her husband, J. L. Moreno (Jacob Levy) (1889-1974), Zerka Moreno is known for her involvement in developing theories and methods for psychodramatic therapy. Working at the Sociometic Institute and the Pyschodramatic Institute in New York City as well as leading the Moreno Institute in Beacon, New York, Zerka Moreno provided psychodrama therapy to patients, led workshops in the treatment across the United States and internationally, mentored graduate students pursuing psychotherapy as part of their psychology or psychiatry degrees, and was the author of dozens of articles and books on the topic of psychodrama. The Center is pleased to announce that Zerka T. Moreno’s papers, dated 1937-2010, are currently being processed.

Zerka Toeman Moreno was born on June 13, 1917, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. She attended secondary school in the Netherlands before moving to London, England, in 1932 where she attended technical school. She planned to become an artist or fashion designer, with specific interest in designing scenery and costumes for stage productions. Moreno relocated to the United States in 1939, shortly after the beginning of World War II. Her sister suffered from mental illness, and in 1941, Moreno arranged for her to move to Beacon, New York, for treatment with J.L. Moreno at the Beacon Hill Sanatorium. That same year, following her sister’s treatment Zerka Moreno became J.L. Moreno’s student, working as his private secretary in Beacon to earn the scholarship he offered her. When he opened the Sociometric Institute in New York City, she became his research assistant and relocated to New York City; this later became the Moreno Institute. In 1947, the two founded the journal Sociatry, which later became known as Group Psychotherapy, which published research regarding the social sciences of sociatry, psychodrama, group psychotherapy, and sociometry. During the 1950s, both Zerka and J.L. Moreno served as adjunct professors at New York University, teaching courses about psychodrama and sociometry. She was the cofounder of the International Association for Group Psychotherapy and the American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama, and spent much of her career traveling for psychotherapy and psychodrama workshops.

After J.L. Moreno’s death in 1974, Zerka T. Moreno continued to work as a psychotherapist, studying psychodrama and exploring new questions regarding surplus reality. With Merlyn S. Pitzele (1911-1995), she continued to attend patients, offer teaching sessions in Beacon and New York City, and led workshops and seminars in countless American and international locations, including Japan, Korea, Brazil, Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Italy, Sweden, and Finland, among others. In 1996, she relocated to Charlottesville, Virginia, closing the Moreno Institute in Beacon, and moved into a nursing home in 2013 in Rockville, Maryland after breaking a hip. She continued to see patients and correspond with students from her bed until shortly before her death.

Zerka T. Moreno was a proponent and student of the area of psychological treatment known as psychodrama. Psychodrama therapy is a form of therapy in which individuals participate in role playing, reenacting real-life experiences either as themselves or as others who have been affected by their behavior. The Morenos believed psychodrama allowed for new expressions of oneself and the integration of the inner and outer realities of a person, which could lead to psychological healing. Zerka Moreno was interested in surplus reality, which is the concept of putting oneself into another person’s reality. Role reversal is a surplus reality technique, which translates into psychodrama and its methods for considering multiple realities.

Zerka T. and J.L. Moreno were married in 1949. They had one son together, Jonathan Moreno (1952-), who was raised with psychodrama throughout his life and later became a bioethicist, philosopher, and historian, working as  the David and Lyn Silfen University Professor and Professor of Medical Ethics and the History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Zerka Moreno was also the stepmother to J.L. Moreno’s daughter from a previous marriage, Regina Moreno (1939-).

The papers are the product of Moreno’s personal and professional activities during her career as a psychotherapist leading psychodramatic workshops and mentoring psychotherapy students throughout the work; her activities with organizations such as the International Association of Group Psychotherapy and the American Society of Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama; as well as her work at the Sociometric, Psychodramatic, and Moreno Institutes and treating patients. Further materials include writings and collected papers used by Moreno in her research, as well as biographical records relating to both Zerka T. and Jacob L. Moreno. The records are expected to be open to research in 2017. For more information on the processing of these papers, contact Elizabeth Coup, Processing Assistant.

 

Processing Staff Finds: Paul Charles Zamecnik and transfer RNA

By , June 6, 2017

In 1956, Dr. Paul Charles Zamecnik (1912-2009) and colleagues Dr. Mahlon Hoagland (1921-2009) and Dr. Mary Louise Stephenson (1921-2009) discovered a critical element  of the protein synthesis pathway, the molecule that carries amino acids to the ribosome, where they are linked to create a chain that folds to form a protein. That molecular was initially called sRNA, standing for “soluble RNA,” and later became known as tRNA, or “transfer RNA.”

 

Data from Zamecnik's research into ribosomal structures, which led to the discovery of transfer RNA (front of page)

Data from Zamecnik’s research into ribosomal structures, which led to the discovery of transfer RNA (front of page)

 

During the processing of the Paul Charles Zamecnik papers, processing staff in the Center for the History of Medicine recently found research data related to the discovery of transfer RNA. The files include materials dated as early as April 1953 and into July 1956, around the time of the discovery. The papers included notes that describe them as the “original experimental data on t-RNA” and “first 1955 experiments on sRNA.” The notes themselves include experiment procedures, hypotheses, and results, as well as related charts and graphs.

 

Data from Zamecnik's research into ribosomal structures, which led to the discovery of transfer RNA (back of page)

Data from Zamecnik’s research into ribosomal structures, which led to the discovery of transfer RNA (back of page)

The data, accompanied by notes, are now included in the Paul C. Zamecnik papers that are being processed right now, and will be part of the series focused on research notes relating to RNA more generally.  This is but one of the topics of Zamecnik’s research during his time leading the Huntington Laboratory at Massachusetts General Hospital and as the Collis P. Huntington Professor of Oncologic Medicine at Harvard Medical School, both in Boston, Massachusetts.

Data from Zamecnik's research that led to the discovery of transfer RNA

Data from Zamecnik’s research that led to the discovery of transfer RNA

After retiring from Harvard Medical School, Zamecnik joined Dr. Mahlon Hoagland and continued his research at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology in Worcester, Massachusetts. Records relating to the scientific research completed at the Worcester Foundation as well as documentation of the formation and running of that organization with Dr. Hoagland are also included in the collection.

Center Staff Presents On EAC-CPF Project At Digital Humanities Open Office Hours

By , April 21, 2017

eac-cpftemplate2Center for the History of Medicine processing assistant, Betts Coup, recently completed a project related to the implementation of the archival standard, Encoded Archival Context – Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families (EAD-CPF) as part of her final semester in the Simmons College School of Library and Information Science master’s program. The project centered on the creators of archival collections within the scope of a Boston School desegregation effort at Northeastern University, while Betts simultaneously led the development of an EAC-CPF template for the Center for the History of Medicine, working closely with the Center’s Collections Services Archivist, Jessica Sedgwick. The efforts to work with this standard at both institutions allowed for collaboration and critical considerations about what data elements should be included in a template for the Center’s collections.

As part of the project, Betts presented about the creation of EAC-CPF templates for both institutions at the Northeastern University Digital Humanities Working Group Open Office Hours, a regular meeting where members of the digital humanities community come together to present and discuss current trends and projects. She was joined for this presentation by Katherine Wisser, an Associate Professor at Simmons College, the advisor for the project, and also the co-chair for the Technical subcommittee for EAC-CPF. The discussion at the Open Office Hours included a description of the standard, as most members of the audience were not familiar with it, a walk-through of the ways EAC-CPF records describe entities, and a comparison of EAC-CPF to TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) Personographies.

EAC-CPF is a standard that was developed fairly recently to provide a method for describing the entities that create, or are the subject of, archival or bibliographic resources. Those entities can be individual persons, corporate bodies, or families, and each record describes one entity and its relationships to other entities and resources. In many ways, EAC-CPF looks similar to the finding aids that describe the Center’s collections, and can include portions of descriptive information borrowed directly from those finding aids, including biographical or historical notes that specifically describe the creating entity rather than the resources themselves. However, EAC-CPF records additionally include elements specific to the description of the entities, including occupations or functions terms, rather than subject terms, as well as an entire section regarding relationships.

The relations portion of the record describes the relationships between the entity and other entities, such as family members, coworkers, and institutions where a person was employed or educated, among others. There are a total of nine types of relationships that can be described, including identity, hierarchical, hierarchical-parent, hierarchical-child, temporal, temporal-earlier, temporal-later, family, and associative. Because many of the Center’s collections, and thus the creators or subjects of those collections, relate to professional careers in medicine, science, public health, dentistry, and similar topics, the vast majority of relationships found in EAC-CPF records are best described as associative. They are then defined in a descriptive note so that users may fully understand the relationship between the entities.

EAC-CPF records additionally describe the relationships between entities and resources. These relationships are defined by three attributes: subject of, creator of, or other, for non-specific relationships. For the Center, many of the resource relations described include the entity’s relationship specifically to archival resources in the collection, either as creator or subject. The relations portion of an EAC-CPF record allows connections to be made between the people or organizations which are responsible for or are the subjects of archival resources, and in turn will enable users to make new connections.

Betts’ presentation at Northeastern University’s Digital Humanities Open Office Hours gave attendees the chance to learn about EAC-CPF and how it is being applied both at the Center for the History of Medicine and the Northeastern University Archives & Special Collections. The discussion also related to TEI Personographies, which is a standard that organizes biographical information about writers, authors, and subjects into encoded texts. TEI personographies are being implemented at Northeastern as part of the Women Writers’ Project, and have some similarities to EAC-CPF in terms of content, but are less structured and defined. The conversation demonstrated the challenges of finding ways to encode and share information that might improve access to resources, and the ways both these standards provide connections and additional information that may improve paths to accessing materials.

Currently, working with the processing staff at the Center, Betts Coup and Jessica Sedgwick are in the final stages of implementing the EAC-CPF template developed over the fall of 2016. In time, these records will be made available to the public with the goal of enabling users to discover new connections between entities and archival resources.

Processing of the Paul Zamecnik papers has begun

By , July 25, 2016

Paul Zamecnik (1912-2009) was the Collis P. Huntington Professor of Oncologic Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, and headed laboratories at the Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (1947-1979, 1997-2009) and the Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Foundation, Worcester, Massachusetts (1979-1997). He is known for his work across multiple fields of biochemistry and molecular biology, including the identification and characterization of the principal components of protein synthesis. He was among those who discovered soluble molecular RNA, later known as transfer RNA (tRNA,) and discovered antisense RNAs and their therapeutic potential; Zamecnik produced the first evidence for the presence and potential role of microRNAs. The Center for the History of Medicine is pleased to report that the Paul Zamecnik papers, a product of his research and career as an author and professor at Harvard Medical School, are currently being processed.

Paul Charles Zamecnik was born 22 November 1912 in Cleveland, Ohio, and at sixteen, enrolled at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. Zamecnik completed bachelor’s degrees at Dartmouth in both chemistry and zoology (1933), and received his medical degree from Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (1936). He interned at Harvard’s Colllis P. Huntington Laboratories for Cancer Research and in 1938, was an intern at University Hospitals, Cleveland, Ohio. Zamecnik was a fellow at the Carlsberg Laboratories, Copenhagen, Denmark, but returned to the work at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, New York, after the 1940 Nazi invasion of Denmark. He held a teaching position at Harvard Medical School during the war, and was then given his own laboratory at Massachusetts General Hospital focusing on the mechanisms of protein synthesis. In 1956, Zamecnik became the Collis P. Huntington Professor of Oncologic Medicine at Harvard Medical School, and continued his research at Massachusetts General Hospital until his retirement to Professor Emeritus in 1979. At that time, he moved his research laboratory to the Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Research, where he remained until 1997 when that foundation was absorbed by the University of Massachusetts. Zamecnik returned to Massachusetts General Hospital’s Cancer Center as a Senior Scientist, where he continued to work until weeks prior to his death in 2009. He was also a cofounder of Hybridon, Incorporated, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1990 to work on the development of antisense drugs; this company merged with Idera Pharmaceuticals in 2004.

Zamecnik is known for his work on protein synthesis, and the discovery of transfer RNA, as well as antisense RNAs and their therapeutic potential. During his early career, he was able to show the incorporation of C14 amino acid into the protein in rat liver slices, which led him to develop a cell-free system with Nancy L. Bucher (1913-) in order to dissect the intermediary events. In 1956, with this system in place, Zamecnik worked with Mahlon B. Hoagland (1921-2009) and Mary Louise Stephenson (1921-2009) to show that ATP was required for protein synthesis via the formation of amino acid adenylates. During this work, Zamecnik noted that ribosomes were the site of protein assembly, which led to the discovery of a small soluble molecular RNA, first called soluble RNA (sRNA) and later transfer RNA (tRNA). Zamecnik then created the cell-free system in E. coli, which led to the deciphering of the genetic code. In 1978, while working on the structure of the Rous sarcoma virus, he showed that it was possible to create a short chain of nucleotides, or a synthetic antisense chain, that would bind to the complementary nucleotide sequence of the messenger RNA (mRNA) strand. He was successful in using antisense oligos to block the replication, transcription, and translation of Rous sarcoma virus in chicken fibroblasts, from which a new chemotherapeutic concept was born. Later in his career, Zamecnik and his coworkers used antisense inhibition in in vitro systems to interfere with the growth of the influenza virus, HIV, f. malaria and M. tuberculosis. He was the first to publish evidence for the existence of microRNA, and showed that the insertion of oligonucleotides by transhybridization could correct the cystic fibrosis gene mutation and that antisense oligos could inhibit cell wall synthesis.

Throughout his career, Paul Zamecnik was an active professor and administrator at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital. He received several awards for his research efforts, including honorary doctorates from Columbia University, New York, New York (1971) and Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (1987), as well as the National Medal of Science (1991), and the Albert Lasker Award for Special Achievement in the Medical Sciences (1996).

The papers, created throughout Zamecnik’s research, professional, and publishing activities, include research data and notes, grant and patent materials, correspondence, and writings and drafts. They are expected to be opened to research by July 2017. For more information on the processing of these papers, contact Elizabeth Coup, Processing Assistant.

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